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Balance of strength, forcing passes, and lower level auctions

West
987
A4
QJ853
Q76
North
A54
J86
K7
KJ1083
East
K32
Q9532
10642
4
South
QJ106
K107
A9
A952
W
N
E
S
1
1
2
3
P
3
P
P
P
D
3 West
NS: 0 EW: 0

Poll is at IMPs.

I've added a poll for this hand, though I'm probably more interested in general advice rather than this specific hand since this may be easier to answer than some other similar hands.

Richard Pavlicek's page on penalty doubles states that if a partnership holds 23+ points between them, the opponents can never be allowed to play undoubled, and gives an example (see #10) where a (non-GF) 2/1 bid establishes a forcing pass situation.

His pages may be slightly outdated, since they also require 13+ HCP to open the bidding, and this forcing pass advice seems to contradict all definitions of forcing passes I've seen on BridgeWinners. However, the general idea of balance-of-strength still seems reasonable advice.

Is the reason that North's cue raise does not establish a forcing pass because nowadays South may well be opening on 10-12 counts, which is no longer enough combined strength?

What should North's double here show? Could it be done with a minimum and good diamonds, or does it say nothing about diamonds and just lets partner know you have a couple of extra points to make up the balance of strength? Would South pull with a minimum and diamond shortness in case you have the latter, thus meaning the former double would never actually be left in?

Same questions for South, eg should a double show any old balanced 13 count - enough for 23 opposite 10 - or diamonds, or both?

If there are existing references on how these sorts of situations work I've love to see them.

Please select up to 3 choices.

North should double
North should pass
North should bid
If North passes, South should double, then North should pass
If North passes, South should double, then North should bid
If North passes, South should pass
If North passes, South should bid
If North doubles, South should pass
If North doubles, South should bid

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